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您的当前位置:南京理工大学研究生院>复习指导>英语复习>2005年考研英语如何翻译并列句
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2005年考研英语如何翻译并列句
添加时间:2004/11/6  来源:博广南理工考研网  浏览数:4683

 英语中的并列句由并列连词或短语and,for,so,but,either…or…等引导或由逗号隔开,各个分句在语法上具有并列的关系,但在意思上除了一部分具有并列关系外,还有一部分具有条件或假设,或具有选择、因果等复合关系,所以翻译时应根据各个分句之间在意思上的相互关系来决定其译法。下面我们将逐一介绍它们的译法。

  1.表示并列关系的并列句该怎样翻译?

  如果各分句在意思上表示并列关系,可按原文译成并列复句。这种句型一般用and连接或用逗号隔开。如:

  经典例题354 During the rush hour yesterday evening two cars collided and two bicycles collided,too.

  参考译文昨天傍晚在交通拥挤时,有两辆汽车相撞,而且还有两辆自行车相撞。

  经典例题355 All matters consist of molecules,and these of atoms.分析:如其中用and连接,这个and可以省译。

  参考译文一切物质都由分子组成,而分子由原子组成。

  经典例题356 The end of the short_lived age of fossil fuels is already in sight;soon we will have consumed all the world‘s resources of oil and coal.

  参考译文短暂的矿物燃料时代结束的日子已经在望;不久,我们就会耗尽世界上所有的石油和煤炭资源。

  2.表示假设和条件关系的并列句该怎样翻译?

  虽然有些并列句是用and连接的,但其分句在意思上是条件或假设关系,就可把它译成条件或假设关系。如:

  经典例题357 Keep your face to the sunshine and you cannot see your shadow.

  参考译文你要是面对阳光,那就看不到自己的影子。

  经典例题358 Start a sound into the air,and it will make waves which you cannot see.

  参考译文如果向空中发出一个声音,它就会产生你看不到的声波。

  经典例题359 Refer to the table,and you will find water has a high specific heat.

  分析:这种句子第一分句一般为祈使句。

  参考译文如果查一下表,你就会发现水的比热很高。

  3.表示选择关系的并列句该怎样翻译?

  如果并列句的各个分句在意思上具有选择关系,就可以译成选择关系。这种句子一般有连词or“否则”,“要不然”,otherwise“否则”,or else“否则”或连词短语either…or“不是…就是…,”要么…要么…“等等。如:

  经典例题360 Light and radiant heat both travel through a vacuum,or(otherwise)the sun‘s light and heat would not reach us.

  参考译文光和辐射热都能穿过真空传递,否则太阳的光和热便不会到达地球上。

  经典例题361 Milk must be kept in a cool place,or else it will go sour.

  参考译文牛奶要放在阴凉的地方,否则就会变酸。

  经典例题362 Either he did not speak distinctly or I did not hear well.

  参考译文不是他没讲清楚,就是我没听明白。

  经典例题363A gas has neither volume nor shape of its own.

  参考译文气体既没有特定的体积,也没有一定的形状。

  4.表示因果关系的并列句该怎样翻译?

  具有因果关系的并列句,有两种情况:一种是后一分句用for引导,而for本身具有表示原因的作用;一种是在后分句前使用therefore连接,表示结果。如:

  经典例题364 The fuel must have been finished,for the engine stopped.

  参考译文燃料准是用完了,因为发动机熄火了。

  经典例题365 The table tilted and the plates slid off it to the floor.

  分析:这个句子使用and连接的,虽然结构上是并列,但其内在逻辑关系却是表因果的。有时前句表原因,后句表结果,有时与此相反。

  参考译文桌子倾倒,致使这些碟子滑落到地板上。

  5.表示转折关系的并列句该怎样翻译?

  如果分句在意义上互不协调,并显示出转折关系,就要译成转折句式。表转折的并列连词有but“但是”,yet“然而”,still“仍然”,however“然而”等。而这些词本身就具有表转折的意思。如:

  经典例题366 This machine is simple in design,yet it is efficient in operation.

  参考译文这机器结构简单,但操作有效。

  经典例题367 Everyone thinks this is a simple method,but yet he cannot believe it.

  参考译文大家都认为这是个简单的方法,可是他还不相信。

  经典例题368 You had difficulties,still you could have done it better.

  参考译文你虽然有些困难,但可以把这件事做得更好。

  经典例题369 Most of living creatures are unable to live far outside the region that suits them best,however,man can go almost everywhere.

  参考译文大多数生物在远离了最适合的地方后是难以生存的,然而,人类几乎可以去任何地方。

  表示对比关系、递近关系和连贯关系的并列句该怎样翻译?

  6.表示对比关系的并列句该怎样翻译?

  这类分句中一般有while,whereas,and,but和however等连词,翻译时译成表示对比关系即可。如:

  经典例题370Motion is absolute,while stagnation is relative.

  分析:这里的while是并列连词,意思是“而”,含有对比的意思,而不是只用作从属连词,连接时间状语之意。参考译文运动是绝对的,而静止是相对的。

  经典例题371 Wise men love truth,whereas fools shun it.

  参考译文智者爱真理,而愚人却回避它。

  经典例题372 She speaks English very fast,nevertheless we understand what she says.

  分析:在并列句中,连词位于后一个分句之前,且本身具有对比关系的分句才采用此译法。

  参考译文她英文说得很快,可是我们还可以听懂她所说的。

  7.表示递进关系的并列句该怎样翻译?

  在并列句中,如果句型是not only…but(also)…,或是两分句中后一句比前一句的意思更进一步,那就可以翻译成“不但…而且…”或“…而且…”。如:

  经典例题373 Not only the oxygen is an element,but also it becomes necessary to man.

  参考译文氧气不仅是一种元素,而且是人类所必需的东西。

  8.表示连贯关系的并列句该怎样翻译?

  如果英语并列句中,各个分句所陈述的动作在意义上有明显的先后顺序,那么在翻译时,汉语就要用连贯的复句表示,而这种译法多在主语相同的并列句中采用。如:

  经典例题374 Eva sang a Japanese song,and then she sang a number of Chinese folk songs.

  参考译文依娃唱了一首日本歌,接着又唱了几首中国民歌。

  历年真题分析

  经典例题375 The supply of oil can be shut off unexpectedly at any time,and in any case,the oil wells will all run dry in thirty years or so at the present rate of use.(1991年)

  结构分析:句子的框架是The supply of oil can be shut off…and the oil wells will all run dry…本句由and连接两个单句,表示意思递进;rate这里应译为“速度”。

  参考译文石油供应可能会随时中断;不管怎样,以目前这种消费速度,只需30年左右,所有的油井都会枯竭。

  经典例题376New sources of energy must be found,and this will take time,but it is not likely to result in any situation that will ever restore that sense of cheap and plentiful energy we have had in the times past.(1991年)

  结构分析:句子的框架是New sources of energy must be found,and this will take time,but it is…any situation that will ever restore that sense…we have had…。本句由and引出单句,紧跟前句,意思递进;but引出长句,意思转折,长句中that引出定语从句修饰ituation,定语从句中又有we have had in the times past定语从句修饰先行词sense;本句中结构it is not likely to…译为“没有可能”。

  参考译文我们必须找到新的能源,这需要时间;而过去我们感觉到的那种能源价廉而充足的情况将不可能再出现了。

  经典例题377 The method of scientific investigation is nothing but the expression of the necessary mode of working of the human mind;it is simply the mode by which all phenomena are reasoned about and given precise and exact explanation.(1993年)

  结构分析:句子的框架是The method of scientific investigation is nothing but…;it is simply the mode by which all phenomena are reasoned about and given…。本句分号前为长单句,分号后句子与前句并列,意思递进,which引出定语从句修饰mode;结构nothing but译为“只是”。

  参考译文科学研究的方法不过是人类思维活动的必要表达方式,也就是对一切现象进行思索并给以精确而严谨解释的表达方式。

  经典例题378 You have all heard it repeated that men of science work by means of induction(归纳法)and deduction,that by the help of these operations,they,in a sort of sense,manage to extract from nature certain natural laws,and that out of these,by some special skill of their own,they build up their theories.(1993年)

  结构分析:句子的框架是You have all heard it…that…,that…,and that…。句中的it是形式宾语,真正的宾语是后面的三个并列分句:A.that men of science work…and deduction;B.that by the help of these operations,they…manage to…certain natural laws;C.and that…,they…their theories.在第二个分句中,they指代前面的men of science,these operations指前文的means of induction and deduction,operations在这里根据上下文要译成“方法”而不能译成“操作”;在第三个分句中,代词these指代第二个分句中的certain natural laws.

  参考译文你们都多次听说过,科学家是用归纳法和演绎法工作的,他们用这些方法,在某种意义上说,力求从自然界找出某些自然规律,然后他们根据这些规律,用自己的某种非同一般的本领,建立起他们的理论。

  经典例题379The target is wrong,for in attacking the tests,critics divert attention from the fault that lies with ill_informed or incompetent users.(1995年)

  结构分析:句子的框架为The target is wrong,for…critics divert…fault that lie with…。连词for引出表原因的并列分句,分句中that引出定语从句修饰先行词fault.target原意为“目标”,在此句中应根据上下文转译为“把标准化测试作为抨击目标”。lie with原意为“应由某人负责”,这里指“来源于”。

  参考译文把标准化测试作为抨击目标是错误的,因为在抨击这类测试时,批评者不考虑其弊病来自人们对测试不甚了解或使用不当。

  经典例题380 Astrophysicists working with ground based detectors at the South Pole and balloon borne instruments are closing in on such structures,and may report their findings soon.(1998年)

  结构分析:句子的框架是Astrophysicists…are closing in on such structures,and may report their findings soon.连词and连接前后两句,意思递进;working with…现在分词作为定语修饰astrophysicists;are closing in on such structures译为“对于这些云系的研究在距离上越来越近”。structure不能直译为“结构”,而应根据上下文译为“云系,团状物质”。

  参考译文天体物理学家使用南极陆基探测器及球载仪器,正越来越近地观测这些云系,也许不久就会报告他们的观测结果。

  经典例题381 Owing to the remarkable development in mass_communications,people everywhere are feeling new wants and are being exposed to new customs and ideas,while governments are often forced to introduce still further innovations for the reasons given above.(2000年)

  结构分析:句子的框架是Owing to…,people everywhere are feeling…and are being exposed to,while governments are often forced to…。连词while引出并列句,与前句对比,前句中and连接两个谓语;介词结构owing to作原因状语。want译为“需要”,be exposed to直译为“暴露于”,这里译为“接触”。

  参考译文大众通讯的显著发展使各地的人们不断感到有新的需求,不断接触到新的习俗和思想,由于上述原因,政府常常得推出更多的革新。

  经典例题382 In the early industrialized countries of Europe the process of industrialization with all the far_reaching changes in social patterns that followed as spread over nearly a century,whereas nowadays a developing nation may undergo the same process in a decade or so.(2000年)

  结构分析:句子的框架是…the process of industrialization…in social patterns that followed was spread…,whereas nowadays a developing nation may undergo…。连词whereas引出并列句,表对比;前句中that followed作定语修饰social patterns;social patterns译为“社会结构”,undergo译为“经历”,这里用“完成”较好。

  参考译文在先期实现工业化的欧洲国家中,其工业化进程以及随之而来的各种深刻的社会结构变革,持续了大约一个世纪之久,而如今一个发展中国家在十年左右就可能完成这个过程。

  经典例题383 Children will play with dolls equipped with personality chips,computers with in_built personalities will be regarded as workmates rather than tools,relaxation will be in front of smell television,and digital age will have arrived.(2001年)

  结构分析:句子的框架是Children will play with…,computers…will be regarded as…,relaxation will be…,and digital age will have arrived.整句是一个四个简单句的并列长句。personality chips译为“个性化芯片”。

  参考译文儿童将与装有个性化芯片的玩具娃娃玩耍,具有个性内置的计算机将被视为工作伙伴而不是工具,人们将在气味电视机前休闲,届时数字化时代就来到了。

  熟能生巧

  经典例题384 But now it is realized that supplies of some of them are limited,and it is even possible to give a reasonable estimate of their“expectation of life”,the time it will take to exhaust all known sources and reserves of these materials.

  结构分析:句子的框架是But now it is realized that supplies…are limited,and it is even possible to…life“,the time it will take to exhaust…sources and reserves of these materials.that引导的从句与and后句构成并列,前句中it作形式主语,真正主语是that引导的从句,and句中it作形式主语,真正主语是不定式;the time作expectation of life的同位语,同时作其后所跟定语从句的宾语;翻译时,将句子第一部分的被动语态转化为主动语态;同时将同位语宾语作状语翻译。

  参考译文可是现在人们意识到,其中有些矿物质的蕴藏量是有限的,人们甚至还可以比较合理的估计出这些矿物质“可望存在多少年”,也就是说,经过若干年后,这些矿物质的全部已知矿源和储量将消耗殆尽。

  经典例题385 Prior to the twentieth century,women in novels were stereotypes of lacking any features that made them unique individuals and were also subject to numerous restrictions imposed by the male_dominated culture.

  结构分析:句子的框架为Prior to…,women…were stereotypes of…features that made them unique individuals and were also subject to numerous restrictions imposed by…culture.and连接前后两句,构成并列。前句中,that引导的定语从句修饰features;后句中,过去分词短语imposed by…culture修饰restrictions,作定语。prior to…翻译为“在…之前”,be subject to翻译为“屈从于”。

  参考译文在20世纪以前,小说中的妇女形象都是一个模式。她们没有任何特点,因而无法成为具有个性的人;她们还要屈从于由男性主宰的文化传统强加给她们的种种束缚。

  经典例题386 If parents were prepared for this adolescent reaction,and realized that it was a sign that the child was growing up and developing valuable powers of observation and independent judgment,they would not be so hurt,and therefore would not drive the child into opposition by resenting and resisting it.

  结构分析:句子的框架是If parents were prepared for this adolescent reaction,and realized that it was a sign that the child was growing up and developing…judgment,they would not be so hurt,and therefore would not drive the child into opposition by resenting and resisting it.整句话使用了虚拟语气;第一个划线and连接条件状语从句中并列的两个谓语,其中第二个谓语中含有一个宾语从句,这个宾语从句的it是形式主语,真正的主语是宾语从句中sign的同位语从句,同位语从句中的and连接两个谓语结构;第二个and连接两个并列主句,by resenting and resisting it方式状语,其中的it指child.

  参考译文如果父母对这种青少年的反应有所准备,而且认为这是一个显示出孩子正在发展珍贵的观察力和独立的判断力的标志,他们就不会感到如此伤心,所以也就不会因此有愤恨和反对的情绪而把孩子推到对立面去。

  经典例题387 Television,it is often said,keeps one informed about current events,allows one to follow the latest developments in science and politics,and offers an endless series of programmes which are both instructive and entertaining.

  结构分析:句子的框架是Television,…,keeps one…,allows one to…,and offers an endless series of programmes which are…。主语后跟三个并列的谓语,其中第三个谓语的宾语又跟有一个由which引导的定语从句;it is often said作为插入语,可以放在句首。keep…informed about…翻译为“使…知晓”。

  参考译文人们常说,通过电视可以了解时事,掌握科学和政治的最新动态。从电视里还可以看到层出不穷、既有教育意义又有娱乐性的新节目。

  经典例题388 The rocks which are now forming and which appear to contain small amounts of hydrocarbon capable of developing into oil are generally rocks which are not characteristic of reservoirs for petroleum deposits.

  结构分析:句子的框架是The rocks which are…and which appear to…are generally rocks which are…。这句话的主语和表语一致,主语有两个并列定语从句修饰,表语也跟有一个定语从句;capable of developing into oil作为形容词短语修饰hydrocarbon;be characteristic of和be characterized by都可翻译为“…的特点是”,或“…具有…的特点”。

  参考译文目前正在形成,并似乎含有少量可能形成石油的碳氢化合物的岩石,通常都没有石油储油层的特点。

  经典例题389 If one could,by asking questions,reliably determines whether the machine or the man is answering the questions,then one would question whether the machine is intelligent or whether it exhibits the same intelligence as the man.

  结构分析:句子的框架是If one could…,reliably determines whether…questions,then one would question whether or whether it exhibits…。本句是条件句+主句的结构。条件句中,谓语determine跟有whether引导的一个宾语从句,主句的谓语question跟有or连接的两个并列的whether引导的宾语从句;by asking questions作为方式状语修饰determine;question在这里是关键词,翻译为“对…提出质疑”,exhibit可翻译为“显示出”。

  参考译文如果观察者能通过提问准确地确定是人还是机器在做出回答,那就不能证明机器是否具有智能或者机器是否具有与人一样的智慧。

  经典例题390 The last quarter of the twentieth century will be remembered as the era when man acquired new communication channels to other men,to libraries of film and data,and to the prodigious machines.

  结构分析:句子的框架是The last quarter of the twentieth century will be remembered as the era when man acquired new communication channels to…and to the prodigious machines.本句主语和表语都是时间名词,并且表语有一个when引导的定语从句,定语从句中三个to+名词的介宾结构构成并列;翻译时,将长句拆分为两个句子,即主句和定语从句,并且用“正是在这个时期”时间状语来衔接前后两句。参考译文20世纪的最后25年将成为一个历史的新纪元而被人们所永远怀念;正是在这个时期,人们获得了新的通讯手段来同别人、同图像和数据库系统,以及同复杂的机器打交道。

  经典例题391 The interpretation of information and of tables should tell us where success or failure lies,where profit can be had and where losses occur.

  结构分析:句子的框架是The interpretation of information and of tables should tell us where…,where…and where…。本句中tell后跟双宾语us和三个where引导的并列从句;本句主语的翻译要注意of表动宾关系,and连接两个并列的of短语。

  参考译文对资料(信息)和报表所做的解释,应能给我们显示出成败之所在,哪里有盈利以及哪里出现了亏损。

  经典例题392 The satisfaction of killing time and of affording some outlet,however modest,for ambition,belongs to most work,and is sufficient to make even a man whose work is dull happier on the average than a man who has no work at all.

  结构分析:句子的框架是The satisfaction…,belongs to most work,and is sufficient to make even a man…happier…than a man…。and连接两个主语一致的并列句,前句中主语satisfaction有and连接的两个并列的of+动宾结构修饰,for ambition应跟在outlet后,however modest作为插入语补充说明outlet;后句中不定式的基本结构是to make+宾语+定语从句+宾补+than+同一宾语+定语从句;翻译时,将belong to这个短语的被动意味转化为主动。

  参考译文大多数工作给予人们消磨时间的满足感和帮助人们实现哪怕是微不足道的抱负的满足感,这种满足感足以使一个从事枯燥乏味工作的人比一个终日无事可做的人快乐。

  经典例题393 Over the last couple of decades there have been some important changes in the way peoplethink about languages and how people learn them which have led to the development of an approach called communicative language teaching.

  结构分析:句子的框架是Over the last couple of decades there have been some important changes…which have led to…approach called…teaching.本句基本句型是个there be句型,there be句中的表语跟有一个定语从句;and连接介词in的两个并列宾语,第一个宾语the way后有定语从句修饰,第二个宾语是how引导的从句;called…过去分词修饰approach;approach在这里不作“靠近”,而翻译为“方法”。

  参考译文在过去的几十年里,人们在考虑语言的方式以及如何学习语言的方式上发生了一些重要的变化,这些变化导致了被称作教学法的产生。

  经典例题394 Scientists reckon that there has been life of some sort on the earth in the form of jelly_ fish(水母)and that kind of creature for about twelve hundred million years;but there have been men for one million years,and there have been civilized men for about eight thousand years at the outside.

  结构分析:句子的框架为Scientists reckon that there has been life…and that kind of creature…;but there have been men…,and there have been civilized men.本句以分号为界将整句话分为前后两部分,前后两部分形成对比;第一部分动词reckon跟有there be句型的宾语从句,而there be句中又由and连接前后意思递近的两个表语;第二部分同样是there be句型的两个单句,第二个单句在意思上递近;at the outside应翻译为“至多,充其量”,而不是“在外面”。

  参考译文科学家推断,地球上有某种生命以水母方式生存了大约12亿年,但人类历史仅有100万年,人类文明的历史充其量也就8000年左右。

  经典例题395 Because of their intelligence and refusal to conform to society‘s anti_intellectural values,many are deprived of a chance to learn adequate social skills and acquire good communication tools.

  结构分析:句子的框架是Because of their intelligence and refusal to…,many are deprived of a chance to learn…and acquire…。本句是because of的介宾结构作原因状语再加一个简单句;介宾结构中,and连接并列的两个宾语,第二个宾语refusal to do…是refuse to do的名词形式,翻译时不变,仍然是“拒绝做某事”;简单句的宾语chance受and连接的并列的两个不定式修饰;be deprived of翻译为“被剥夺”。参考译文许多孩子因为智力较高和不愿迎合社会上反知识的价值观,而被剥夺了学习足够的社交技能和获得良好交际手段的机会。

  经典例题396 One can never repay one‘s parents,and there’s a sense of obligation or even guilt that is as strong a force among Asians as Protestant philosophy(新教哲学)is in the West.

  结构分析:句子的框架是One can never repay one‘s parents,and there’s a sense of obligation or even guilt that is as strong a force…as Protestant philosophy is…。and连接前后两句,意思上递进;or连接of的两个宾语,共同修饰sense,that引导的定语从句修饰sense,从句中又使用了同级比较。

  参考译文一个人永远无法报答他的父母,而且在亚洲人中间还有一种责任感、乃至负罪感,这是一种如同新教哲学在西方一样的强大力量。

  经典例题397 This tension between the research and lending wings remains in the bank,and is one of several challenges that will need to be overcome if the new strategy is to bear fruit.

  结构分析:句子的框架是This tension…remains,and is one of several challenges that will need to be overcome if the new strategy is to bear fruit.and连接前后两个句子,表示意思上的承接;前句中research和lending并列修饰wings;后句中有that引导的定语从句修饰challenges和if引导的条件状语从句;is to bear fruit可翻译为“要出成果”,这里翻译为“成功实施”。

  参考译文银行内主张开展研究和主张开展借贷业务的两派仍然互不相让,这种紧张状态是新策略成功实施必须克服的几个挑战之一。

  经典例题398 I went away from the symposium with a strong conviction,more intuitive than rational,that human experimental psychology,theoretical linguistics and computer simulation of cognitive processes were all pieces of larger whole,and that the future world see progressive elaboration and coordination of their shared concerns.

  结构分析:句子的框架是I went away…with a strong conviction,…,that human experimental psychology…and computer simulation of cognitive processes were all pieces of larger whole,and that the future world see progressive elaboration and coordination of their shared concerns.划线的and前后两个that引导的从句并列作为conviction的同位语从句;第一个从句的三个主语并列,第二个从句中,and连接的elaboration和coordination并列受到their shared concerns的修饰,of表示动宾关系;主句中,more intuitive than rational作为插入成分,翻译为“与其说是理性的,倒不如说是更为直觉的”来修饰conviction,翻译同位语从句时,可用冒号引出从句内容。

  参考译文专题讨论会会后,我确立了一种与其说是理性的,倒不如说是更为直觉的信念:人类的实验心理学、理论语言学和认知过程的计算机模拟都是较大整体的组成部分;未来世界将会看到,它们共同关注的问题会进一步得到阐释和相互协调。

  经典例题399 Marriage has become a purely individual pursuit;an implied and not very enforceable contract between two people;a relationship designed to satisfy basic needs for intimacy,dependency and sex.

  结构分析:句子的框架是Marriage has become a…pursuit;an…contract…;a relatio nship…。两个分号连接三个并列的表语,第三个表语中designed to…过去分词作后置定语修饰relationship,原意为“设计以…”,这里动词介词化翻译为“旨在,在于”。

  参考译文婚姻已经成为纯粹的个人追求了,一份两个人之间含蓄的并非绝对强迫性的契约,一种旨在满足亲密、依靠和性的基本需要的关系。

  经典例题400 Under this investment vehicle,you get no deduction for your contributions,but all money—principal and earnings—not only will be tax_free,but will not be subject to the10%penalty on early withdraws.

  结构分析:句子的框架是Under this investment vehicle,you get no deduction…,but all money…not only will be tax_free,but will not be subject to the10%penalty on early withdraws.第一个but引出的后面所有部分与前句并列,意思递进;第二个but引出的句子跟在not only后,意思递进;principal and earnings作为插入成分修饰money;be subject to原意是“屈从于”,在这里翻译为“需要交纳”。

  参考译文在这种投资形式下,你的账户内的款项不会有扣除额,全部的钱,包括本金和工资,不仅是免税的,而且提前支取时也不需交纳10%的违约罚金。

  经典例题401 The moon will acquire its first permanent base,and the human population living in space will rise steadily,as manufacturing develops aboard spacecraft and the resources of other planets are explored.

  结构分析:句子的框架是The moon will acquire its first permanent base,and the human population…will rise steadily,as manufacturing develops and the resources of other planets are explored.and连接并列的简单句,第二个简单句中living in space现在分词作定语修饰population;最后有as引导的and连接的两个并列时间状语从句,表示伴随。第二个时间状语从句的翻译将被动转化为主动翻译。

  参考译文月球将获得它的第一个永久基地,而随着制造业在宇宙飞船上的发展,随着其他行星上资源勘探工作的进行,生活在太空中的人口将会稳步地增长。

  经典例题402 These hands spoke of the stubbornness of mankind,of the will to work not only as one‘s strength permits but beyond the limits of one’s power.

  结构分析:句子的框架是These hands spoke of the stubbornness…,of the will to work not only as one‘s strength permits but beyond the limits of one’s power.of the will与of the stubbornness并列,同时will受to work不定式修饰;not only引出as引导的时间状语从句,but跟有介宾结构,同样做work的状语。speak of在这里翻译为“述说”,stubbornness在这里翻译为“顽强”,而不是“顽固”。

  参考译文这双手诉说着人类的顽强,诉说着劳动的意志———不仅在体力允许的情况下,甚至在超出体力极限的情况下顽强坚持的那份劳动意志。

  经典例题403 While most of my friends invested in car stereos that could rattle windows a block away,I stuck with the old original radio that barely picked up two stations on a good night.

  结构分析:句子的框架是While most of my friends invested in car stereos…,I stuck with the old original radio…。while引导的句子与逗号后的句子并列,形成对比,并且前后两个句子都含有一个that引导的定语从句,分别修饰stereos和radio;stuck with这里同stuck to,意为“坚持”,picked up在这里根据上下文,翻译为“接收到”。

  参考译文当我大多数的朋友买了能将几条街区以外的玻璃窗震得格格作响的汽车立体声音响时,我一直在继续用原来那台即使在晴好的夜晚也只能勉强收到两个电台的旧收音机。

  练习和答案

  练习

  Exactly where we will stand in the long war against disease by the year2050is impossible to say.(61)But if developments in research maintain their current pace,it seems likely that a combination of improved attention to dietary and environmental factors,along with advances in gene therapy and protein targeted drugs,will have virtually eliminated most major classes of disease.

  From an economic standpoint,the best news may be that these accomplishments could be accompanied by a drop in health_care costs.(62)Costs may even fall as diseases are brought under control using pinpointed,short term therapies now being developed.By2050there will be fewer hospitals,and surgical procedures will be largely restricted to the treatment of accidents and other forms of trauma(外伤)。Spending on nonacute(慢性病的)care,both in nursing facilities and in homes,will also fall sharply as more elderly people lead healthy lives until close to death.

  One result of medicine‘s success in controlling disease will be a dramatic increase in life expectancy.(63)The extent of that increase is a highly speculative matter,but it is worth noting that medical science has already helped to make the very old(currently defined as those over85years of age)the fastest growing segment of the population.Between1960.and1995,the U.S.population as a whole in creased by about45%,while the segment over85years of age grew by almost300%.(64)There has been a similar explosion in the population of centenarians,with the result that survival to the age of100is no longer the newsworthy feat that it was only a few decades ago.U.S.Census Bureau projections already forecast dramatic increase in the number of centenarians in the next50years:4million in2050,compared with37,000 in1990.

  (65)Although Census Bureau calculations project an increase in average life span of only eight years by the year2050,some experts believe that the human life span should not begin to encounter any theoretical natural limits before120years.With continuing advances in molecular medicine and a growing understanding of the aging process,that limit could rise to130years or more.

  答案

  文章大意:本文对到2050年人类与疾病做斗争的情况进行了预测,认为,如果医学研究的发展保持目前的速度,大部分主要类别的疾病将得到消灭;医疗开支可能下降;由于医学的进步有效地控制了疾病,会大大增加预期寿命,尤其是百岁以上老人的人口会激增。

  (61)结构分析:句子框架是if…,it seems likely that…。if引导条件状语从句修饰主句it seems likely that…。it为形式主语,that引导的从句为真正的主语。pace意为“(生长、进展等的)速度”;combination with意为“与…结合或联合”;gene therapy意为“基因疗法”。

  参考译文:但是,如果医学研究的发展保持目前的速度,更加注意膳食与环境因素的结合,再加上基因疗法和针对蛋白质的药物所取得的进展,实际上将有可能消灭大部分主要类别的疾病。

  (62)结构分析:句子框架是Costs may even fall as…。as引导状语从句,被动结构be brought under control意为“使…得到控制”,译成主动态。现在分词短语using…在句子中作原因状语;现在分词短语being developed作后置定语,修饰therapies.pinpointed意为“定位准确的”。

  参考译文:由于采用目前开发的定位准确的短期疗法而使疾病得到控制,医疗开支甚至可能下降。

  (63)结构分析:句子框架是The extent…is a highly speculative matter,but it is worth noting that…。but连接两个并列句。but后的并列分句中it为形式主语,that引导的从句为真正的主语。speculative意为“思索的;推测的”。

  参考译文:人们预期寿命的增加范围是一个非常具有推测性的问题,但值得注意的是,医学科学已经帮助使年龄非常大的人(目前规定为超过85岁的人)成为人口增长最快的部分。

  (64)结构分析:句子框架是There has been a similar explosion…。in the population of centenarians和with the result并列作主句的状语。that引导的从句作result的同位语,此同位语从句中又套嵌一个that引导的定语从句修饰feat.explosion此处不应译成“爆炸”,而译成“激增”;centenarian此处意为“百岁(或百岁以上的)老人”;newsworthy意为“有新闻价值的,值得报道的”。

  参考译文:百岁老人的数量也同样地激增了,结果是人活到100岁已不再是具有新闻价值的业绩,而这一点仅仅在几十年前还是具有新闻价值的业绩。

  (65)结构分析:句子框架是Although…,some experts believe that…。although引导方式状语从句。主句中that引导的从句作believe的宾语从句。project此处译为“推断,预计”。

  参考译文:虽然人口统计局预测到2050年之前人的平均预期寿命只增加8岁,但是一些专家认为,人们预期寿命可以达到120岁不会受到任何理论上的自然限制。


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